Bibliography - interactive 3D virtual reality environments


Tutorials, References


Best VRML textbook:
Ames, Nadeau and Moreland, The VRML 2.0 Sourcebook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, 1997.

   Examples (but not text) are online at .


Best online reference: the Annotated VRML 97 Reference


Official VRML specification:


Floppy’s Web3D guide (good online tutorial – follow links):


Building 3D virtual environments class at Ohio State – seems pretty good.

§         Hompage:

§         Very large index of brief VRML examples


Multi-user tutorial:




VrmlPad (VRML editor):


Chisel (optimization of 3ds max vrml exports):


blaxxun VRML Exporter for 3ds max:  (some bugs – and deinstalling it requires you to reinstall 3ds max.)


Blaxxun: homepage :


The contact 5.1 releasenotes:

Developer examples:


Contact multi texture documentation


blaxxun Contact 5.1 download & blaxxun documentation in PDF format (over 200 pages):


Holger Grahn’s website (creator of blaxxun Contact browser)


Holgers studies site:


Examples of VRML worlds collected by Holger:


Cybertown online VRML community           (Hompage: )


Cybertown World Builder’s Guide



Web3D Consortium           Homepage:


VRML Repository        


Other examples


Some Quake -> VRML examples:


A VRML elevator game:


Virtuality, VRML worlds:


Thyme's Techuelife Island:



Books: theories of dramatic structure in various media


1.        VR:
Fencott, Clive. Understanding VR, 

2.        Installation Art:
Kabakov, Ilya. Ueber die “Totale” Installation, Cantz Verlag, Ostfildern, 1995.


3.        History of Ideas:
 Wertheim, Margaret, Pearly Gates of Cyberspace, WW Norton, NY, 1999 ISBN 0-393-04694-X, pp.30-55.


4.        Architecture/Urban Planning:
 Philip Thiel, People, Paths, and Purposes, Univ. of WA Press, 1997, ISBN 0-295-97521-0, pp.121-124, 132, 138-141, 178-180, 222-227, 230, 236-237.


5.        Music:
Meyer, Leonard, Emotion and Meaning in Music, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1956, ISBN 0-226-52139-7, pp.22-43.